Katayama Syndrome

Katayama Syndrome is an early clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis that occurs several weeks post-infection with Schistosoma spp (trematode) worms[1].
Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by an infection by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. The disease is spread by contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasites. These parasites are released from infected freshwater snails. The disease is especially common among children in developing countries as they are more likely to play in contaminated water. Other high risk groups include farmers, fishermen, and people using unclean water during daily living. The urinary tract or the intestines may be infected.
[Adult male Schistosoma parasite flatworm]

Symptoms of schistosomiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, or blood in the urine. Those who have been infected for a long time may experience liver damage, kidney failure, infertility, or bladder cancer. In children, it may cause poor growth and learning difficulty.

The problem is that there is a temporal delay before the actual symptoms of schistosomiasis appear. The patient exibits some non-specific symptoms and it is the form of schistosomiasis most likely to be misdiagnosed by travel medicine physicians and infectious disease specialists in non-endemic countries.

Katayama syndrome appears between 14–84 days after non-immune individuals are exposed to first schistosome infection or heavy reinfection. Disease onset appears to be related to migrating schistosomula and egg deposition with individuals typically presenting with nocturnal fever, cough, myalgia, headache, and abdominal tenderness. Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates are found radiologically, and almost all cases have eosinophilia and a history of water contact 14–84 days before presentation of clinical symptoms; patients respond well to regimens of praziquantel with and without steroids. Artemisinin treatment given early after exposure may decrease the risk of the syndrome.

[1] Ross et al: Katayama syndrome in Lancet Infectious Diseases - 2007

Ulysses Syndrome

The Ulysses Syndrome is a syndrome coined by Joseba Achotegui, Professor of Psychotherapy in Barcelona[1]. It is sometimes called the Immigrant Syndrome of Chronic and Multiple Stress, but the problem with the alternative name is that most immigrants are also emigrants, yet they are both migrants.
The syndrome is named after the classical Greek hero, Odysseus, who was unable to return home and travelled for some 10 years through the Mediterranean after the end of the decade-long Trojan War. The hardships of his journey are compared to the ones of contemporary migrants, who must struggle with intensely stressful, novel situations in isolation and with little help. Scarcity of their resources makes it impossible to cope with and successfully adapt to the unfamiliar environment of the receiving country, which in turn leads to experiencing a range of detrimental symptoms.

The Ulysses Syndrome is described as an atypical set of depressive, anxious, dissociative, and somatoform symptoms that results from being exposed to extreme levels of stress unique to the process of modern migration. Rather than a mental disorder, this syndrome is a natural reaction to toxic levels of stress seen in migrants who are otherwise in normal mental health[2].

Symptoms of Ulysses syndrome include migraines, insomnia, recurrent worrying, tension, nervousness, irritability, disorientation, fear, fatigue, sadness, gastric pain, bone pain, low self-esteem, increased tobacco and alcohol consumption, and decreased productivity.

A lack of social support or access to appropriate medical care may aggravate these symptoms. The problem, of course, is that the term emigrant or immigrant is often a misnomer, because these symptoms are mostly the result of being an illegal asylum seeker. These are arriving into countries that differ vastly in culture from their original home countries. The Ulysses Syndrome is therefore also a culture shock.

[1] Achotegui: Migración y Salud Mental. El Síndrome del inmigrante con estrés crónico y múltiple (síndome de Ulises) in Vertex - 2005
[2] Bianucci et al: The "Ulysses syndrome": An eponym identifies a psychosomatic disorder in modern migrants in European Journal of International Medicine – 2017

Saint John's Syndrome

The name of Saint John's Syndrome is obviously borrowed from the biblical Saint John who wrote about this disease in the Bible. John described it in Chapters 2 and 3 of the Book of Revelations.
Saint John's Syndrome is a psychological problem of second-generation churches which lack the commitment of the first generation. This second generation lacks the same sense of purpose as the first members.

In other words: it is a sort of apathy or 'lukewarmness' of the believers who take the church for granted. Believers stop actively participating in festivities or other activities. They take the church (the building and the institution itself) and what it stands for for granted.

Saint John's Syndrome is only one of the problems that can beset a church. To be complete, I shall mention these other problems[1].

[1] Ethnikitis happens when a church finds itself in an changing neighbourhood and refuses to adapt to serve the people who now actually live in their community.
[2] People Blindness occurs when we look past the different kinds of people around us. The people are there but we, for various reasons, seem not to be able to see them.
[3] Hypercooperation happens when a church works harder to get along with other believers rather than focusing on God’s mission.
[4] Koinonitis is the disease we experience when our local fellowship is too tight to let new people in.
[5] Sociological Strangulation happens when the potential of growth is there but we can’t keep up with leadership and structural development to support growth.
[6] Arrested Spiritual Development is the condition where long-time “disciples” of Jesus have not progressively grown into becoming like Jesus.

[1] Peter Wagner: The Healthy Church (1996)

Wuchereria bancrofti

Footage has emerged of the disgusting moment doctors removed a large parasitic worm from a man's eye.
The 60-year-old unnamed patient went to hospital in Karnataka, India with the revolting creature slithering around the white of his eye.
He was seen by Dr Srikanth Shetty who decided the best course of action would be to remove the worm immediately because it was putting the patient's eyesight at risk.

The intricate procedure was filmed and the footage posted online.

It shows Dr Shetty carefully removing the parasite and placing it in a plastic container, where the true size of the creature is revealed. It was 15 centimeters long.

The worm is believed to be Wuchereria bancrofti, a type of roundworm that is spread via mosquito bites. Wuchereria bancrofti is a human parasitic roundworm that is the major cause of lymphatic filariasis. It is one of the three parasitic worms, together with Brugia malayi and Brugia timori, that infect the lymphatic system to cause lymphatic filariasis.

Acute Amnestic Syndrome Associated with Fentanyl Overdose

Between 2012 and 2016, a number of patients in Massachusetts (USA) presented to doctors with a strange syndrome of unknown cause. The original 14 patients all showed signs of cognitive issues, including orientation and attention problems, as well as an acute anterograde amnestic syndrome.
As more people showed up at Massachusetts hospitals with the same condition, each with memory problems that lasted months, doctors tested for what might connect them. All had damage to the hippocampus, but it turned out 12 of the 14 patients were also found to have traces of opioids in their system. However, this alone wouldn't account for their symptoms.

Now five more cases of the condition, four of these are described in an scientific article. They all had one thing in common: They all tested positive for fentanyl[1]. Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid, to be used as a pain medication. However, its misuse has resulted a spiraling number of fatalities per year. Provisional numbers for 2017 say almost 30,000 Americans have died from overdosing on fentanyl[2].
They think the syndrome may be appearing to be on the rise due to an increase in fentanyl in illicit drugs. They write that fentanyl has been shown to create neuronal damage in the hippocampus of rats in previous studies, suggesting the link between the syndrome and fentanyl is likely[3].

The sad conclusion of this is that Americans are collectively so unhappy that they are perhaps unconsciously feeling that suicide or amnesia are an answer to their problems.

[1] Barash et al: Acute Amnestic Syndrome Associated with Fentanyl Overdose in letter to the Editor of New England Journal of Medicine – 2018
[2] National Institute on Drug Abuse: Overdose Death Rates – Revised August 2018
[3] Kofke et al: Opioid neurotoxicity: fentanyl dose-response effects in rats in Anesthesia and Analgesia – 1996

Small Dog Syndrome

Small Dog Syndrome is the name given to a collection of behaviour displayed by small dogs, behaviours that have the effect of overcoming any deficits caused by being small in stature. The problem is reminiscent of a inferiority complex in humans.
Typical behaviours displayed include: [1] excitable behaviour, [2] jumping up on owners, other people or dogs, [3] Growling at people or other dogs, [4] Lunging or snapping at perceived threats, [5] Avoidance or fear of larger dogs, typically hiding behind or trying to be picked up by owner, [6] Reluctance to move off sofas and beds, [7] Separation anxiety symptoms and [8] Failure to obey commands.

This does not mean that every small dog will display these behaviours, or that each of these behaviours is indicative of Small Dog Syndrome. Collectively, however, these behaviours make life with small dogs difficult for owners and for other people and animals around them but there are ways of improving their behaviour.

Changing dog behaviour generally involves changing owner behaviour too and, as some 'dog psychologists' believe, this syndrome may have more to do with the owner’s behaviour than their dogs! Understanding dog behaviour, and how humans affect it, is the first step in improving the negative aspects of Small Dog Syndrome.

The question remains, however, why people want to own such a small dog with its known behavioural problems. Maybe they are kindred spirits.


Trump Derangement Syndrome

Trump Derangement Syndrome is a neologism [from Greek néo (νέο), 'new' and lógos (λόγος) 'word', 'utterance'] applied by some writers and commentators to describe a type of criticism of US President Donald Trump by liberals, progressives, and Never Trump conservatives, who are said to respond to statements and political actions by Trump in a manner verging on the irrational, with little regard to his actual position or action taken.
The problem however is that Trump is probably suffering from early stages of dementia and that, coupled to his bullying nature, is leading to actions and words that are objectionary, sometimes even to his staunchest followers.

Yet, in the eyes of the objective onlooker, Trump is mentally unstable and unfit to hold such a high office.

The syndrome can be traced to Bush Derangement Syndrome, a phrase coined by Charles Krauthammer in 2003, during the presidency of George W. Bush, and defined by Krauthammer as "the acute onset of paranoia in otherwise normal people in reaction to the policies, the presidency – nay – the very existence of George W. Bush[1]."

Krauthammer, now a harsh critic of Trump, defined Trump Derangement Syndrome as describing a Trump-induced "general hysteria" among the chattering classes, producing an "inability to distinguish between legitimate policy differences and... signs of psychic pathology" in the President's behaviour[1].

[1] Krauthammer: You can't govern by ID: Charles Krauthammer - June 2017. See here.

Quannot's Syndrome

"There's got to be something I can do." ―Cray Mingla, upon learning of Marr's diagnosis

Quannot's Syndrome was a debilitating and ultimately fatal disease that caused immense pain to its victims. Humans were among the susceptible species, and the pain caused by the disease could be held at bay with high doses of painkillers such as perigen, a mild, non-narcotic painkiller applied in patch form. There's no cure for Quannot's Syndrome.

During the Cold War between the Galactic Republic and the Sith Empire, the Empire's Moff Taigo was diagnosed with the disease and acquired several organs from the black market in order to replace his infected organs. Zelebitha Effhod, the First Minister of the Coruscant Ministry of Ingress, died from Quannot's Syndrome in 22 BBY on the eve of the Clone Wars between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems. Around 12 ABY, the Jedi trainee Nichos Marr was diagnosed with Quannot's Syndrome, and though his lover Cray Mingla sought to cure him, her efforts to transfer his consciousness to a droid body failed and Marr died.

Quannot's Syndrome first appeared in the 1995 novel 'Children of the Jedi', and has been mentioned in several reference guides and other material since then.

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

Frequent users of cannabis often talk about the drug as harmless and possibly having a series of positive effects on body and mind. There are, however, some serious medical issues that can arise when using cannabis.
In your brain, cannabis can overwhelm the endocannabinoid system, which is a complex and important regulator of stress response and allostasis. The result is Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome[1].

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting and crampy abdominal pain[2]. It can easily lead to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities.

The symptoms may be improved temporarily by taking a hot shower or hot bath. The symptoms return the moment the water turns tepid. The recurring problem may lead to compulsive bathing behaviours. The only fully foolproof cure is stopping the use of cannabis.

The problem is of course that the use of cannabis in the US has been decriminalised in several states. This may result in a dramatic increase in the number of cases.

While there are no known cases of fatal overdose from cannabis use in the epidemiologic literature, the use is certainly detrimental to your health in the long run. Studies suggest that some adverse health outcomes may be elevated among heavy cannabis users, namely, fatal motor vehicle accidents, and possibly respiratory and brain cancers[3].

Compulsive Vomiting Syndrome is a possible differential diagnosis if and when the use of cannabis can be ruled out.

[1] Sontineni et al: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse in World Journal of Gastroenterology – 2009. See here.
[2] Sorensen et al: Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment-a Systematic Review in Journal of Medical Toxicology – 2017
[3] Calabria et al: Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use in Drug and Alcohol Review - 2010

Propofol Infusion Syndrome

Propofol Infusion Syndrome, often shortened to PRIS, is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol[1].

Propofol Infusion Syndrome can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis (direct or indirect muscle injury), metabolic acidosis and kidney failure. It is often fatal. High blood potassium, high blood triglycerides and liver enlargement (fatty liver) are thought to be caused by either 'a direct mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition or impaired mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism' are also key features.

The syndrome is associated with high doses and long-term use of propofol (> 4 mg/kg/h for more than 24 hours). It occurs more commonly in children and critically ill patients. Patients receiving catecholamines and glucocorticoids are at high risk.

Treatment is supportive. Haemodialysis or haemoperfusion are potential treatments. Early recognition of the syndrome and discontinuation of the propofol infusion reduces morbidity and mortality.

Propofol was only introduced in 1986. Propofol's abuse potential emerged quickly in the US and was highlighted by the death of pop singer Michael Jackson in 2009[2].

[1] Kam, Cardone: Propofol infusion syndrome in Anaesthesia – 2007
[2] Diaz, Kaye: Death by propofol in Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society - 2017

Fluffy Soil Syndrome (or Rootless Corn Syndrome)

Soil tillage is one of the most common management practices in any crop production systems. Tilling can lead to increased yields, but also has some risks. The first is the increased risk for wind and water erosion. The second is the acceleration of oxidation of organic matter in the soil. The third is the risk of compacting the subsoil just below the depth of tillage[1].
The last risk can lead to a fluffy soil and that in turn can lead to a problem called Rootless Corn Syndrome. Sometimes seeds are planted in dry, loose, fluffy soil. When the weather turns wet, the rains compress the soil, causing the nodal roots to form closer to the soil surface than normal. This, along with fluctuating environmental conditions that have occurred through most of the growing season, can cause the nodal roots to cease normal growth.
If nodal roots fail to form, affected corn plants depend on the seminal roots and mesocotyl for nourishment, and the seminal roots become the primary anchor for the corn plant. Without the nodal roots, the corn plants do not have much of an 'anchor' to help them stay upright. This is when we see floppy corn that is easily blown over by the wind.

Another cause of rootless corn is shallow-planted corn, which places the crown close to the soil surface, causing nodal root development near the soil surface rather than its usual depth of around three centimeters.

[1] Daigh, Dejong-Hughes: Fluffy soil syndrome: When tilled soil does not settle in Journal of Soil and Water Conservation - 2017

Tired Mountain Syndrome

Some countries (read: North Korea) conduct nuclear explosions deep within a mountain. Tunnels are drilled (by political prisoners housed in concentration camps) deep into a mountain to prevent radiation reaching the surface. The North Korean Punggye-ri site comprises a number of tunnel complexes. Five nuclear explosions have been conducted in a tunnel complex to the north of the support area, under Mount Mantap.
Now, scientists are worried that the entire mountain might collapse in on itself and release a cloud of radiation onto the surrounding area. Satellite images captured during North Korea's test of a nuclear bomb in September 2017, Mount Mantap could be seen visibly subsided during the explosion, an indication of both the size of the blast and the weakness of the mountain. The enormous detonation which triggered a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in northeastern North Korea. And since that test, the region - which is not known for seismic activity - has experienced several landslides and no fewer than three more earthquakes. The tremors even shook homes in southeastern China. And eight minutes after the initial quake subsided, there was a 4.1-magnitude earthquake that appeared to be a tunnel collapsing at the site[1].

Scientists call this the Tired Mountain Syndrome. Mount Mantap is possibly weakened to the point of collapsing in on itself.

But perhaps equally as concerning as the collapse of Mantap is the possibility that another test could trigger an eruption at Mount Paektu, an active supervolcano located on the North Korea-China border, about 80 miles from Pyungge-ri.

[1] South China Morning Post: North Korea nuclear test site has signs of ‘Tired Mountain Syndrome’ after five blasts – October 18, 2017

Fried Rice Syndrome

In the tropics, food deteriorates fast. Even after a couple of hours meat can turn rancid and that's the sole reason consumers in that parts of the world always like their food spicy: pepper and chili peppers both act as an antibacterial and both mask the taste of decay.
Fried rice is also not immune to bacteria. The bacterium Bacillus cereus, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax, likes to invade fried rice. The bacteria are classically contracted from fried rice dishes that have been sitting at room temperature for hours.

Bacillus cereus is responsible for a growing number of foodborne illnesses, causing severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea[1].

But now there's a more menacing problem: in the tropical rainforests of Ivory Coast, Bacillus cereus has acquired two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, possibly from Bacillus anthracis, encoding most of the genes that make anthrax such a formidable killer[2].

That version of Bacillus cereus is called Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis. If that variant manages to escape the African rainforests, we're in for some serious and deadly problems.

[1] Katranta et al: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections in Microbes and Infection – 2000
[2] Leendertz et al: A New Bacillus anthracis Found in Wild Chimpanzees and a Gorilla from West and Central Africa in PloS Pathogens – 2006

Rushing Woman's Syndrome

According to research, long-term activation of the stress-response system - and the subsequent overexposure to cortisol and other stress hormones - can disrupt almost all your body's processes. This puts you at increased risk of numerous health problems, including: anxiety, depression, digestive problems, heart disease, sleep problems, weight gain (or loss), memory and concentration impairment.
Stress can be the result of a perceived or a real threat. The body knows that it is stressed and responds with a fight or flight reaction. But your body doesn't know the difference between the stress we feel at work or stress from the risk of an attack. The cumulative effect of constantly feeling pressure can create a cascade of stress hormones that is detrimental to our physical and mental health.

Diet and alcohol also stimulate stress hormones. Add in a lack of sleep and you have yourself a heady chemical concoction.

These are problems that affect many of us, but some want to earn some money out of other people's psychological and physical discomfort. Such a person is Libby Weaver, a New Zealand-based biochemist and nutritionist, but NOT a medical doctor. She coined the term 'Rushing Woman’s Syndrome' in 2012. She believes imbalanced sex and stress hormones cause problems with 'weight management, food cravings, sleep quality, patience, moods, self-esteem, and overall quality of life.'

Real doctors claim that 'Rushing Woman’s Syndrome' is simply a marketing term, not a medical term. They warned that such simplistic explanations could prevent women with actual clinical mood and depression disorders from getting the medical or psychological help they need.

Other critics have characterized 'Rushing Woman’s Syndrome' as a gimmick designed to help Weaver sell health products, as her company, Dr. Libby Ltd., sells books, consultations, courses, health retreats, CDs and DVDs. Curry is also promoting her own weight-loss program and naturopathic hormone treatments, which she says helped her overcome her symptoms.

O dear, that sounds very much like quackery, if you should ask me. But you shouldn't ask me, but finally rely on your own judgement. You might well reach the same conclusion.

Fungus-related Sick Building Syndrome

Remember the days that people in Victorian England suffered and frequently died from toxins in wallpapers. These wallpapers contained copious amounts of toxic arsenic. Copper arsenite created a vivid green pigment.

Nowadays the situation is very different and …
No, the situaton hasn't changed so very much because scientist have found that toxins produced by three different species of fungus growing indoors on wallpaper may become aerosolized, and easily inhaled. The findings, which likely have implications for Sick Building Syndrome, were recently published[1].

The researchers demonstrated that mycotoxins could be transferred from a moldy material to air, under conditions that may be encountered in buildings. Part of the toxic load was found on very small particles — dust or tiny fragments of wallpaper, that could be easily inhaled. Thus, mycotoxins can be easily inhaled and should be investigated as parameters of indoor air quality, especially in homes with visible fungal contamination.

The research was done with three fungal species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum. These species, long studied as sources of food contaminants, also are frequent indoor contaminants.

Increasingly energy efficient homes may aggravate the problem of mycotoxins indoors. Such homes are strongly isolated from the outside to save energy, but various water-using appliances such as coffee makers could lead to favorable conditions for fungal growth and might be the cause of several respiratory illnesses.

[1] Aleksic et al: Aerosolization of mycotoxins after growth of toxinogenic fungi on wallpaper in Applied and Environmental Microbiology – 2017

Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome

Who's to blame for bullying, some people ask? Is it the bully who preys on the weak and vulnerable? It is the victim who isn't assertive enough? Are the parents to blame who do not teach their children to be kind? Or are the teachers or managers at fault because it is easier not wanting to see bullying, because taking action is so much trouble?
Much research has been devoted to try to understand what the factors are that drives people to bully. Bullies mostly come from dysfunctional families, where there is little affection and openness. Bullies need to be in control, are impulsive and cannot regulate their emotions. Bullying behavior gets rewarded with cheap laughs, by negative attention or the power of having others afraid of them. Bullies don’t care how others feel and lack empathy. Highly narcissistic boys were more likely than their peers to show elevated levels of direct bullying[1]. But, above all, deep down bullies have a inferiority complex.

In other words: bullies having serious psychological problems and are in desperate need of some professional treatment.

The problem is that most bullies aren't treated or punished for their actions. Parents, teachers and managers do not recognise (or don't want to recognise) the signals. Bullying leads to festering situations where people frequently report sick with vague complaints.

A new book by Ellen Walser DeLara, 'Bullying Scars', finds that victims of bullying often show signs and signals that mimic those of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD). To differentiate between both, DeLara coined the term Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome (APBS).

While Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome can share some symptoms with Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome, there are distinct differences. One is that there can be both negative and positive aspects to Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome, whereas there are no positive aspects associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. The negative symptoms of Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome can mimic those of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome or the effects seen from child abuse. These effects, both in Adult Post-Bullying Syndrome and in Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome, are lasting into adulthood and can include shame, anxiety and relational difficulties.

[1] Reijntjes et al: Narcissism, Bullying, and Social Dominance in Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology - 2016. See here.

New World Syndrome

The New World Syndrome is a misnomer and should have been called Western Diet Syndrome. The New World Syndrome is linked to a change from a traditional diet and exercise to a Western diet (i.e. junk food) and a sedentary lifestyle.
The traditional occupations of indigenous people – such as fishing, farming and hunting – tended to involve constant activity, whereas modern office jobs do not. The introduction of modern transportation such as automobiles also decreased physical exertion.

Meanwhile, cheap Western foods which are rich in fat, salt, sugar, and refined starches are also imported into countries. The amount of carbohydrates in diets increases[1]

The results of the introduction of these Western diets and lack of exercise are devastating. This syndrome is especially common in the indigenous peoples of the 'New World' (i.e. of the Americas). Imported American foodstuffs and carbonated soft drinks are cheaper than their traditional foods. Other examples of this syndrome are the inhabitants of several island states in the Pacific[2] and the Australian aboriginals[3].

The New World Syndrome is characterized by obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a shortened life span.

[1] Bradshaw et al: Emergence of diabetes mellitus in a Mexican-origin population: a multiple cause-of-death analysis in Social Biology – 1995
[2] Ellen Ruppel Shell: New world Syndrome in The Atlantic – 2001. See here.
[3] Gracey: New World syndrome in Western Australian aborigines in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology – 1995

Hard Water Syndrome

In contrast to 'soft water', hard water is water that has a high mineral content, with minerals such as iron, copper calcium and magnesium. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates.
The World Health Organization (WHO) actually says that "there does not appear to be any convincing evidence that water hardness causes adverse health effects in humans"[1]. In fact, studies indicate that hard water actually serves as a dietary supplement for copper, calcium and magnesium[2][3]. Hard water consumption even seems to be protective against Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)[4].

So, hard water is essentially healthy, but this all changes dramatically it is used during haemodialysis, the process of purifying the blood of a patient whose kidneys are not working normally. During this process, water is used to remove waste products, such as creatinine and urea, and free water from the blood.

If the water, used to flush the blood, contains high levels of iron, calcium and magnesium it can result in post-dialysis nausea, vomiting, weakness (asthenia), and/or hypertension[5]. This is the Hard Water Syndrome.

[1] Hardness in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality – 2003. See here.
[2] Klevay: The influence of copper and zinc on the occurrence of ischemic heart disease in Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology – 1980
[3] Sengupta: Potential health impacts of hard water in International Journal of Preventative Medicine – 2013
[4] Gianfredi et al: Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies in Journal of Water and Health – 2017
[5] Freeman, Lawton: The Hard Water Syndrome in New England Journal of Medicine – 1967

De Quervain Syndrome

A syndrome you know it would surface: a repetitive strain injury resulting from too much messaging (or texting) on your smartphone. De Quervain Syndrome is named after the Swiss surgeon Fritz de Quervain (1868-1940).

But this syndrome has a long history, because repetitive actions were once mostly work related. Think of wrist bending and movements associated with the twisting or driving of screws. Workers who perform rapid repetitive activities involving pinching, grasping, pulling or pushing have been considered at increased risk[1].
Nowadays, some specific activities that have been postulated as potential risk factors include intensive computer mouse use and typing, as well as some pastimes, including bowling, golf and fly-fishing, piano-playing, and sewing and knitting.

That's why De Quervain Syndrome has a host of other names, such as BlackBerry thumb, texting thumb, gamer's thumb, washerwoman's sprain, radial styloid tenosynovitis, mother's wrist or mommy thumb.

De Quervain Syndrome is a tenosynovitis (inflammation) of the sheath or tunnel that surrounds two tendons that control movement of the thumb. Symptoms are pain at the radial side of the wrist, spasms, tenderness, occasional burning sensation in the hand, and swelling over the thumb side of the wrist, and difficulty gripping with the affected side of the hand. The onset is often gradual. Pain is made worse by movement of the thumb and wrist, and may radiate to the thumb or the forearm.

While treatment often includes of corticosteroid injections, research seems to indicate that such treatment may worsen the long-term outcome[2].

[1] Ilyas et al: De Quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist in Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons – 2007
[2] Freire, Bureau: Injectable Corticosteroids: Take Precautions and Use Caution in Seminars in Muskuloskeletal Radiology - 2016

Postpartum Blues Syndrome

Postpartum Blues Syndrome is a transient mild depression occurring post partum is so ubiquitous and ostensibly benign that it has not often been deemed worthy of serious study[1].

Consequently, considerable uncertainty exists about the basic characteristics and significance of this syndrome. In females, the study of stress in the life cycle demands attention to endocrine-behavioral interaction, since some of the times of greatest life stress (ie, menarche, pregnancy, and menopause) occur simultaneously with marked fluctuations in hormonal levels.
Although it is associated with a critical phase in the life cycle, the dysphoria curiously occurs after delivery at a time when one would expect women to feel joyous. In fact, this period is occasionally the moment of onset of a major emotional upheaval—the postpartum psychosis.

References to this mild postpartum dysphorias first appeared in the medical literature in the late 19th century. The term 'milk fever' was used in 1875, since the dysphoria appeared to coincide with the onset of lactation. Another synonym, 'third day blues', was employed for similar reasons.

Symptoms include crying, insomnia, restlessness and confusion were observed in a large proportion of women post partum.

Postpartum Blues Syndrome is nót a Postnatal Depression, otherwise known as Postpartum Depression (PPD).

[1] Yalom et al: 'Postpartum blues' Syndrome in Archives of General Psychology - 1968

Walking Deficiency Syndrome

According to the WHO, the number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes[1].

The term 'type 2 diabetes' gives everyone the impression that the problem is a disease, but some beg to differ.
According to Sir Muir Gray, one of Britain's leading medical practitioners, type 2 diabetes should be renamed 'walking deficiency syndrome' because he thinks it's not a 'real disease'[2].

Sir Muir Gray has done extensive research on how modern lifestyles such as sitting at a desk or in a car are contributing to the risk of disease. He claims that type 2 diabetes, which is largely preventable, but costs the NHS billions of pounds a year to treat, should be renamed because it is caused by the 'modern environment'.

Sir Muir Gray said: 'I wrote about this and somebody wrote back and said it was called a 'metabolic syndrome'. I said I don't believe in metabolic syndromes. The problem with calling it type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome makes you think it's like rheumatoid arthritis or a real disease. These are conditions caused by the modern environment.'

Nearly 4 million people in the UK suffer from diabetes and approximately 90 per cent of these are type 2 diabetes sufferers. By contrast, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition and often emerges in childhood.

The chances of developing type 2 diabetes are greatly exacerbated by being overweight and many sufferers are able to reverse the condition by dieting alone.

[1] World Health Organization: Global report on diabetes – 2016
[2] Type 2 diabetes? It's 'walking deficiency syndrome' and not a real illness, says top doctor in Daily Mail – 2017

Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome

Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome is also known as sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), sudden adult death syndrome or sudden unexpected/unexplained death syndrome (SUDS. Like the name implies, it is a sudden unexpected death of adolescents and young adults, mainly during their sleep.

This syndrome is rare in most areas around the world, but it seems to mainly target Southeast Asians. It seems to occur mainly in populations that are culturally and genetically distinct and people who leave the population carry with them the vulnerability to sudden death during sleep.
Sudden unexplained death syndrome was first noted in 1977 among southeast Asian Hmong refugees in the US[1]. The disease was again noted in Singapore, when a retrospective survey of records showed that 230 otherwise healthy Thai men died suddenly of unexplained causes between 1982 and 1990. Nepalese men, working in Saudi Arabia or Malaysia also came 'home in caskets'[2].

A Tokyo Medical Examiner reported that every year several hundred evidently healthy men are found dead in their beds in the Tokyo District alone. These observations indicate that the recent sudden deaths of Southeast Asian refugees are not a new occurrence, but rather an ongoing pattern of sudden deaths that appears in Southeast Asia.

Although there has been a significant amount of research on this topic, scientists have not been able to determine the exact cause. One possible cause, however, is Brugada Syndrome, a genetic disease that is characterised by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings[3]. It has been implicated as a major cause of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome.

My own hypothesis is that these young males died of a broken heart as a result of continued stress because of prolonged homesickness.

[1] Munger: Sudden death in sleep of Laotian-Hmong refugees in Thailand: a case-control study in American Journal of Public Health - 1987
[2] Hisdustan Times: 21dec17. See here
[3] Gourrault et al: Brugada syndrome: Diagnosis, risk stratification and management in Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases - 2017

Imaginary Lat Syndrome

Imaginary Lat Syndrome is a condition that is not recognised by the medical or psychological propefssions. The syndrome manifests itself if someone, typically a male, believes they are rather muscular when in reality this isn't the case. Lat is short for 'latissimus dorsi' muscles in the bodybuilding world.
Those with Imaginary Lat Syndrome can typically be seen walking uncomfortably while flaring their small lat muscles and tensing their arms in an attempt to look 'muscled'. In reality, it appears silly and the person looks like a toothbrush has been shoved up their backside.

Manlets are at high risk of falling victim to this syndrome due to reasons of overcompensation.

Delusional Misidentification Syndromes

Delusional Misidentification Syndromes are considered some sort of an umbrella term, introduced by Christodoulou in his book 'The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes', for a group of delusional disorders that occur in the context of mental or neurological illnesses. They all involve a belief that the identity of a person, object or place has somehow changed or has been altered. As these delusions typically only concern one particular topic, they also fall under the category called monothematic delusions.

This syndrome is usually considered to include several variants:
[1] Capgras delusion is the belief that (usually) a close relative or spouse has been replaced by an identical-looking impostor;
[2] Fregoli delusion is the belief that various people the believer meets are actually the same person in disguise;
[3] Intermetamorphosis is the belief that people in the environment swap identities with each other whilst maintaining the same appearance;
[4] Subjective doubles as described by Christodoulou in 1978 is the belief that there is a doppelgänger or double of him- or herself carrying out independent actions;
[5] Mirrored-self misidentification is the belief that one's reflection in a mirror is some other person;
[6] Reduplicative paramnesia is the belief that a familiar person, place, object or body part has been duplicated. For example, a person may believe that they are in fact not in the hospital to which they were admitted, but an identical-looking hospital in a different part of the country, despite this being obviously false;
[7] Cotard Syndrome is a rare disorder in which people hold a delusional belief that they are dead (either figuratively or literally), do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. In rare instances, it can include delusions of immortality;
[8] Syndrome of delusional companions is the belief that objects (such as soft toys) are sentient beings;
[9] Clonal pluralization of the self, where a person believes there are multiple copies of him- or herself, identical both physically and psychologically but physically separate and distinct.
There is considerable evidence such disorders are associated with disorders of face perception and recognition[1]. However, it has been suggested that all misidentification problems exist on a continuum of anomalies of familiarity, from déjà vu at one end to the formation of delusional beliefs at the other.

[1] Sno: A Continuum of Misidentification Symptoms in Psychopathology - 1994

Floppy Trunk Syndrome

Floppy Trunk Syndrome is also known as flaccid trunk paralysis. It is a condition that causes trunk paralysis in African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana). Initially observed in 1989, the syndrome primarily affected bull elephants in several select regions in Zimbabwe[1].
The paralysis has been observed to start at the tip and work its way upward over the course of several months. As their trunks become increasingly paralyzed, elephants have difficulty feeding and learn to use their front feet or throw their trunk over branches to aid feeding. To avoid stomping on their trunk while walking, an elephant afflicted with the condition would fling their trunk over their tusks. In later stages of paralysis, affected elephants needed to submerge themselves partially in water to drink. However, despite these learned adaptations, affected elephants were observed as emaciated, suffering from muscle atrophy and a lack of visceral fat. Untreated, this handicap could result in starvation.

The syndrome has only been observed in free-ranging elephants, specifically African bush elephants and primarily affects older male elephants. Over thirty elephants were observed to be afflicted with this paralysis.

The cause of this syndrome is currently unknown, but researchers suggest several possible poisonous plant species, such as Heliotropium ovalifolium, Indigofera and Boerhavia. Cases of poisoning of sheep and goat in Sudan have been reported, and a fatal liver disease in Australian horses has been attributed to Heliotropium ovalifolium. However, extensive tests using extracts of the plant failed to reveal any neurotoxicity in in vivo test systems[2].

[1] Kock et al: Flaccid trunk paralysis in free-ranging elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe in Journal of Wildlife Diseases – 1994
[2] Guntern et al: Heliotropamide, a Novel Oxopyrrolidine-3-carboxamide from Heliotropium ovalifolium in Journal of Natural Products – 2003

Parental Avoidance Syndrome

Parental Avoidance Syndrome is a non-existant syndrome, jokingly referred to in 'The Flying Club', an episode of Midsomer Murders.

During that episode the parents of resident pathologist Kate Wilding come to visit her. Her father, Giles, is pensioned off and is bored to death, so he tries to 'help' his daughter.
Kate tries to evade her parents, something DCI John Barnaby not fails to notice.

Hair Tourniquet Syndrome

Hair tourniquet is a medical condition wherein a hair or other thread becomes tied around a toe or finger so tightly that the digits experience strangulation. Eventually the digits may suffer so much damage that they face amputation.
First called Toe Tourniquet Syndrome in 1971, it is now better known as Hair Tourniquet Syndrome because it can also affect fingers.

The problem usually arises in babies and small children when hairs or threads are lost loosely inside socks. They can become spontaneously tied round a toe and will tend to tighten with wriggling. Natural hair is much more likely to undergo this phenomenon than spun thread. Incidents such as this can also occur during sleep.

The condition is common enough, though relatively under reported[1].

[1] Lohana et al: Toe-Tourniquet Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma! in Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England – 2006

Parental Alienation Syndrome

Parental Alienation Syndrome (abbreviated as PAS) is a term coined by Richard A. Gardner in the early 1980s to refer to what he describes as a disorder in which a child, on an ongoing basis, belittles and insults one parent without justification, due to a combination of factors, including indoctrination by the other parent (almost exclusively as part of a child custody dispute) and the child's own attempts to denigrate the target parent[1][2].

Advocates see three types of Parental Alienation Syndrome:
Naïve alienators are parents who are passive about the children's relationship with the other parent but will occasionally do or say something that can alienate. All parents will occasionally be naïve alienators.
Active alienators also know better than to alienate, but their intense hurt or anger causes them to impulsively lose control over their behavior or what they say. Later, they may feel very guilty about how they behaved.
- Obsessed alienators have a fervent cause to destroy the targeted parent. Frequently a parent can be a blend between two types of alienators, usually a combination between the naïve and active alienator. Rarely does the obsessed alienator have enough self-control or insight to blend with the other types. These three patterns of alienating behaviors are not intended to be used as a diagnosis.
The American Psychiatric Association deemed it not necessary to include Parental Alienation Syndrome in their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5)[3]. The result is that attorneys commonly utilize this as an easy way out: PAS doesn’t exist because it’s not in DSM-5.

[1] Gardner: Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation in Academy Forum – 1985
[2] Gardner: Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS): Sixteen Years Later in Academy Forum – 2001
[3] Bernet, Baker: Parental alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11: response to critics in Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law – 2013

Doctor's Receptionist Syndrome

The Doctor's Receptionist Syndrome is the illusion that some doctors receptionists have when they feel they are more important than the doctor who employ them. Others call it a personality flaw in which people suppose that, because they work for someone important like a doctor, they must have an equal claim to status and authority.
These receptionists are mostly full of self importance and seem to think they know medical issues better than the doctor himself (or herself). They also run a tight ship and feel protective about their employers.

Cannabis Vomiting Syndrome

Cannabis Vomiting Syndrome is officially known as Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting and crampy abdominal pain.
While the use of marijuana (weed or cannabis) has steadily been legalized in more and more states of the USA, only now doctors and legislators are beginning to see the drawbacks of heavy, long-term marijuana use. They should have listened to the men and women who are in the frontline of drugs abuse in The Netherlands: marijuana isn't the soft drug some want us to think it is. It makes virtual zombies out of many a young adult and frequently will lead to onset of schizophrenia[1].

But America is the land of the free. So, the use of marijuana is now free too. Users claim that it is an effective treatment for nausea. It is, but just for a short while. If use for a prolonged period of time it will create the problems you thought it would treat.

It is certainly something that, before legalization, we almost never saw,” Dr. Kennon Heard said. “Now we are seeing it quite frequently.” He works at the University of Colorado Hospital in Aurora, Colorado and he and his team documented this rise in a 2015 paper published in Academic Emergency Medicine[1]. They studied 120,000 patient visits — half of which were studied in 2008 to 2009 (the “pre-liberalization” period of marijuana) and the other from 2010 to 2011. The doctors found that the prevalence of patients exhibiting cyclical vomiting doubled in that time period[2].

The symptoms of Cannabis Vomiting Syndrome can be stopped by stopping the use of marijuana, but that might prove more difficult than anticipated by lawmakers. Another option is to take a hot shower or bath. That will temporarily alleviate the symptoms.Until the water turns tepid.

[1] Frascarelli et al: Cannabis use related to early psychotic onset: Role of premorbid function in Neuroscience Letters - 2016
[2] Kim et al: Cyclic Vomiting Presentations Following Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado in Academic Emergency Medicine – 2015. See here.

Eat your Heart out

algivore: Eater of algae
ambivore: Eater of grasses and broad-leaved plants
amphivore: Eater of both animal and vegetable foods (also known as omnivore)
animavore: Eater of souls
aphidivore: Eater of aphids
apivore: Eater of bees
arachnivore: Eater of spiders
aurivore: Eater of gold
avivore: Eater of birds

baccivore: Eater of berries
bacterivore: Eater of bacteria
batrachivore: Eater of water bottoms
brychocarnivore: Eater of meat with a lot of noise and greed
brychomnivore: Eater in a noisy, barbaric way

calcivore: Eater of calcium, limestone
cancrivore: Eater of crabs
carnivore: Eater of meat
cepivore: Eater of onions
comburivore: Eaten by fire
concarnivore: Eater of foods that only contains meat
corallivore: Eater of coral

detritivore: Eater of dead organic material, especially plant detritus

equivorous: Eating horse-flesh
erucivore: Eater of caterpillars
exudativore: Eater of gum and other exudates from trees

ferrivore: Eater of iron
fimivore: Eater of dung
florivore: Eater of flowers or plant species
folivore: Eater of leaves
forbivore: Eater of broad-leaved plants
formicivore: Eater of ants
formivore: Eater of ants
frondivore: Eater of leaves
fructivore: Eater of fruit
frugivore: Eater of fruit
fucivore: Eater of seaweed
fumivore: Eater of smoke
fungivore: Eater of fungi

gallivore: Eater of galls
graminivore: Eater of grasses
granivore: Eater of grain
gumivore: Eater of gums secreted by plants

herbivore: Eater of plants
hominivore: Eater of humans
humanovore: Eater of humans
humivore: Eater of humus

insectivore: Eater of insects
invertivore: Eater invertebrates 

lactivore: Eater of milk
larvivore: eater of larvae
leguminivore: Eater of beans, peas and other legumes
lichenivore: Eater of lichens
lignivore: Eater of wood or lignite
limnivore: Eater of mud
lithovore: Eater of rocks and minerals
locavore: Eater of only locally grown food

mellivore: Eater of honey
merdivore: Eater of excrement
microbivore: Eater of microorganisms
molluscivore: Eater of molluscs
mucivore: Eater of plant juices
mycovore: Eater of fungi
myristicivore: Eater of nutmeg
myrmevore: Eater of ants

nectarivore: Eater of nectar
nucivore: Eater of nuts

offivore: Eater of offal
omnivore: Eater of any type of available food
ornithivore: Eater of birds
oryzivore: Eater of rice
ossivore: Eater of bones
ovivore: Eater of eggs or sheep

palynivore: Eater of pollen
panivore: Eater of bread
photovore: 'Eater' of light as a source of energy
phytivore: Eater of plants or vegetable matter
phytosuccivore: Eater of the sap of plants
pigmentivore: Eater of pigments, destroyer of paint
pinivore: Eater of pine seeds
piscivore: Eater of fish
planktivore: Eater of plankton
plurivore: Eater of many things
pollenivore: Eater of pollen
pollinivore: Eater of pollen produced by plant stamens
pomivore: Eater of apples
pupivore: Eater of pupae

quercivore: Eater of oak leaves or acorns

radicivore: Eater of tubers and roots
ranivore: Eater of frogs

reptilivore: Eater of reptiles

sanguinivore: Eater of blood
saprovore: Eater of dead or decaying organic matter
seminivore: Eater of seeds
serpentivore: Eater of snakes
spongivore: Eater of sponges
stellavore: Eater of stars (massive black hole or Egyptian god Seth)
stercovore: Eater of excrement or dung

uncarnivore: Non-meat eater
univore: Eater of just one kind of food or eating just once a day

vermivore: Eater of worms and insects (vermin)
voracivore: Eater of great quantities of food

xylovore: Eater of wood

zoosuccivore: Eater of the liquid secretions of decaying animal matter

Mostly taken from here.

Baboon Syndrome

Baboon Syndrome is more properly known as Symmetrical Drug-Related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema (SDRIFE). Yes, the term Baboon Syndrome is more easy to remember, but the syndrome also resembles the distinctive red buttocks displayed by some male baboon species
Baboon Syndrome is a systemic contact dermatitis characterized by well-demarcated patches of erythema distributed symmetrically on the buttocks. The cause of the syndrome may be drug-related, sometimes induced by systemic administration of hydroxyzine[1] penicillin[2], iodinated radio contrast media[3] and others[4].

The typical rash commonly appears on buttocks. This then resembles the colour of a baboon’s buttocks. Other areas, like upper inner thigh and armpits, may be affected by the rash. The rashes are red and well-defined. The presentation is typically symmetrical and not associated with systemic symptoms.
Baboon syndrome affects both sexes equally, and can occur at any age, but seems to be more common in childhood than in adulthood.

[1] Akkari et al: Baboon syndrome induced by hydroxyzine in Indian Journal of Dermatology – 2013
[2] Handisurya et al: SDRIFE (baboon syndrome) induced by penicillin in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology – 2009
[3] Arnold et al: Recurrent flexural exanthema (SDRIFE or baboon syndrome) after administration of two differentiodinated radio contrast media in Dermatology – 2007
[4] Cohen: Zoledronic acid-associated symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): report of baboon syndrome in a woman with recurrent metastatic breast cancer after receiving zoledronic acid in Dermatology Online Journal – 2015

Red Skin Syndrome

Red Skin Syndrome (RRS) is also known as Topical Steroid Addiction (TSA) or Topical Steroid Withdrawal (TSW).

Red Skin Syndrome is a debilitating condition that can arise from the prolonged use or cessation of topical steroids (corticosteroids, glucocorticosteroids or cortisone) to treat a skin problem, such as eczema.
Red Skin Syndrome is characterized by red, itchy, burning skin that can appear after ceasing topical steroid treatments. In Red Skin Syndrome, topical steroids are effective for a period of time to treat the skin condition, but as time passes, applying topical steroids results in less and less clearing. The original problem escalates as it spreads to other areas of the body. In the case of eczema, this 'progression' is often mistaken for worsening eczema.

Red Skin Syndrome is an iatrogenic condition, which means it is a condition caused inadvertently by a medical treatment and proper management of the condition requires cessation of topical steroid treatment.

Signs and symptons of Red Skin Syndrome can be divided into 'before' and 'after' discontinuation:
[1] Before discontininuation: [a] Rashes spreading and developing in new areas of the body, [b] intense itching, burning and stinging, [c] failure to clear with usual course of treatment, thus requiring a higher potency topical steroid to achieve progressively less clearing and [d] increased allergic response
[2] After cessation: [a] Skin flushing bright red, resembling a sunburn, [b] flaking of skin – appears to be ‘snowing’, [c] oozing exudate, [d] skin cycling between oozing, swelling, burning and flaking, [e] red sleeves (arms/legs become red and inflamed, [f] thermoregulation altered (feeling too cold or too hot), [g] hypersensitivity of the skin to water, movement, moisturizer, fabrics, temperature, etc, [h] nerve pain, sometimes described as 'sparklers' or 'zingers', [i] enlarged lymph nodes, [j] edema, [k] eye dryness and irritation, [l] skin atrophy (often manifesting as 'elephant wrinkles'), [m] hair loss (head and/or body), [n] insomnia, altered body clock, [o] appetite changes, [p] fatigue and [q] emotional fluctuations, depression, anxiety.

Read here how Red Skin Syndrome influenced the life of my dear friend, Elaine Thomson.

Silo Unloader Syndrome

Silo Unloader Syndrome is an occupational lung disease that occurs in farm workers who go into a silo and breath in the nitrogen dioxide which is toxic to the body. Some sources erroneously claim that the causing agent is dust from food or feed that is present in a silo, but that syndrome is better described by the Organic Dust Toxicity Syndrome.
When a silo is filled with fresh organic material (grain, grass, etc), nitrogen dioxide is formed by anaerobic fermentation. High levels can develop at the top of grain in silos or at the top of silage pits within hours of their filling.

Nitrogen dioxide penetrates deeply into the lungs, where it is reactive with lung surface fluids and acts as a pulmonary irritant. When nitrogen dioxide contacts the lung surface fluids, it slowly hydrolyzes to nitrous and nitric acid, producing chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.

Signs and symptoms of Silo Unloader Syndrome include cough, light-headedness, shortness of breath (dyspnea), chest tightness, choking, sweating, chest pain, and wheezing.

When afflicted, the farmer may die immediately of asphyxia or succumb to pulmonary edema within 24 hours. Survivors often develop progressive bronchitis within a few weeks.

Dancing eyes-Dancing feet Syndrome

Dancing eyes-Dancing feet Syndrome is medically better known as the Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). It is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by rapid, multi-directional eye movements (opsoclonus), sudden muscle contractions (myoclonic jerks), uncoordinated movement (ataxia), irritability and sleep disturbance.
The onset is usually abrupt, often severe and can become chronic. Dancing eyes-Dancing feet Syndrome typically occurs in association with tumors (neuroblastomas) or following a viral infection. Relapses are common and may occur without warning.

Signs and symptoms of Dancing eyes-Dancing feet Syndrome may include [a] an unsteady and trembling gait, [b] sudden, brief, shock-like muscle spasms (myoclonus) and [c] irregular, rapid eye movements (opsoclonus). Muscle spasms occur  most when trying to move and worsens with agitation or stimulation, but can also be present at rest. An affected person may appear tremulous, or have jerking movements. The face, eyelids, limbs, fingers, head and trunk may be involved. During the peak of the illness, sitting or standing is difficult or even impossible. Other symptoms may include difficulty speaking; poorly articulated speech or an inability to speak; difficulty eating or sleeping; excessive drooling; incoordination; rage attacks; head tilt; a decrease in muscle tone; malaise; and/or other abnormalities. Children may appear to be nervous, irritable or lethargic while adults may have mental clouding (encephalopathy).

Recently this syndrome has been linked to infections with Dengue Virus[1], Zika Virus[2], West Nile Virus[3] and Influenza A Virus[4].

[1] Tan et al: Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome associated with dengue virus infection in Parkinsonism and Related Disorders – 2015
[2] Burness: New evidence finds mosquitoes could infect humans with Zika and chikungunya viruses at the same time in EurekAlert – 2016
[3] Bîrluţiu et al: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome attributable to West Nile encephalitis: a case report in Journal of Medical Case Reports – 2014
[4] Morita et al: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome following influenza a infection in Internal Medicine – 2015

Lactational Insanity Syndrome

Lactational Insanity Syndrome was a term once used to describe the mental anguish of women who had given birth. Nearly all medical writers in the late 19th century describe the mental derangements occurring during pregnancy (the puerperium) and the nursing period under the collective title 'puerperal insanity'.
[Newgate prison]
Some authors classified puerperal insanity into the insanity of pregnancy (the puerperal period proper) and the insanity of lactational (the nursing period). They arbitrarily assumed that the latter begins six weeks to two months after labor[1].

Prolonged or excessive lactation is given as the chief cause of insanity occurring during the nursing period. However, it remained ‘an untidy, elusive disorder’, without any shared understanding of a unique symptomology or treatment protocol.

The syndrome was entrenched in Victorian expectations of proper womanly behaviour. New research clearly shows that the class or social status of the patients had a bearing on how their conditions were perceived and rationalized. The diagnosis was further coloured by the values assigned to it and may have been reserved for some women and not for others. Thus there existed a sharp contrast in the way that middle-class and working-class women were diagnosed[2]. A vivid description of the squalid and inhuman conditions in Victorian hospitals and asylums can be read in E.S. Thomson's 'Beloved Poison' and 'Dark Asylum'.

Yet, women can be seriously depressed after childbirth and postpartum psychosis has been described for over 2,000 years. Modern science supports a genetic component to the risk, but the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders still does not include it as a diagnosis[3].

[1] Rohé: Lactational Insanity in Journal of the American Medical Association – 1893
[2] Campbell: 'Noisy, restless and incoherent': puerperal insanity at Dundee Lunatic Asylum in History of Psychiatry – 2016
[3] Friedman and Sorrentino: Commentary: postpartum psychosis, infanticide, and insanity--implications for forensic psychiatry in Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law – 2012