Baboon Syndrome

Baboon Syndrome is more properly known as Symmetrical Drug-Related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema (SDRIFE). Yes, the term Baboon Syndrome is more easy to remember, but the syndrome also resembles the distinctive red buttocks displayed by some male baboon species
Baboon Syndrome is a systemic contact dermatitis characterized by well-demarcated patches of erythema distributed symmetrically on the buttocks. The cause of the syndrome may be drug-related, sometimes induced by systemic administration of hydroxyzine[1] penicillin[2], iodinated radio contrast media[3] and others[4].

The typical rash commonly appears on buttocks. This then resembles the colour of a baboon’s buttocks. Other areas, like upper inner thigh and armpits, may be affected by the rash. The rashes are red and well-defined. The presentation is typically symmetrical and not associated with systemic symptoms.
Baboon syndrome affects both sexes equally, and can occur at any age, but seems to be more common in childhood than in adulthood.

[1] Akkari et al: Baboon syndrome induced by hydroxyzine in Indian Journal of Dermatology – 2013
[2] Handisurya et al: SDRIFE (baboon syndrome) induced by penicillin in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology – 2009
[3] Arnold et al: Recurrent flexural exanthema (SDRIFE or baboon syndrome) after administration of two differentiodinated radio contrast media in Dermatology – 2007
[4] Cohen: Zoledronic acid-associated symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): report of baboon syndrome in a woman with recurrent metastatic breast cancer after receiving zoledronic acid in Dermatology Online Journal – 2015

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